Evidence suggests that above a certain level, additional wealth does not bring greater happiness. Research has found that once individuals reach a certain level of subsistence additional wealth has only limited impact on well-being. Thus, wealthier societies have not become markedly happier despite the increase over time in material prosperity.
More important to most people are things like health, security, freedom, personal relationships, work, control over one’s life, leisure time, and a positive mind set. Focussing on these needs can improve people’s happiness without increasing the demands we make on the planet through buying more stuff.
We can and should decouple human well-being from unsustainable consumption and it is possible and essential to do this whilst still allowing change and progress to flourish. Transition to an economic and political system that seeks to enhance these drivers of wellbeing will be complex. There are signs of progress, however, with some governments and other organizations increasingly seeking to develop measurements of true well-being as they recognize the limitations of a simple focus on gross national product.
What is a sustainable lifestyle?
Humanity as a whole is already consuming more resources than the Earth can in the longer term provide. Unless consumption and environmental impact in richer countries is reduced, as poorer countries develop economically there will be an even greater impact on the environment and resources.
Reductions in richer countries that simply see unsustainable consumption and growth transferred to the rest of the world is not a solution. While economic growth is essential and a human right for hundreds of people living in poverty, ensuring sustainability – in particular with population growing fast in many of these countries) is a critical challenge.
Contraction and convergence
The concept of Contraction and Convergence (C&C) was conceived by the Global Commons Institute in the early 1990s. The principle is that the rich should consume progressively far less resources per capita than before, while the poor consume rather more than they did, so we converge towards a common ‘fair share’ for each, which the planet can sustain.
We support C&C or global equity, but it must take account of the plain arithmetic fact that every additional person reduces everyone else’s sustainable share. We have therefore insisted on including a population base year at which the ultimate target figures, notably for sustainable carbon emissions per person, should be calculated country by country. Without it, countries with high population growth would consume ever more, at the expense of those who had succeeded in restraining or reducing their numbers. We were delighted when Kofi Annan endorsed our view in his Chairman’s Key Recommendations following a conversation we had with him after a workshop we gave at the Global Humanitarian Forum in June 2009.
Population numbers, lifestyles, and sustainable technologies are a classic trade-off. If we want a sustainable future, we need to address not one or two but all three of these issues in parallel.