Unmet Need for Contraception in Developing Countries: Examining Women’s Reasons for Not Using a Method. Guttmacher Institute, 2016
Unprotected Nation. Family Planning Association, 2015
The Cost of a Child in 2015. Child Poverty Action Group, 2015
Cost of a Child. LV=, 2015
Adding It Up. Guttmacher Institute/UNFPA, 2014
Total Fertility Rate. The World Factbook. CIA, 2014
The Morning After: A Cross-Party Enquiry into Unplanned Pregnancy. 2020health, 2012
World Fertility Report. UNDESA, 2012
Keeping Track. UNEP, 2011
Incentivisation: Low Fertility in Europe – Is There Still Reason to Worry? Rand Corporation, 2011
Does Welfare Reform Affect Fertility? Evidence from the UK. Institute of Fiscal Studies, 2008
Ahmed, Saifuddin et al – Life Expectancy Three Years Longer for Children Born Into Smaller Families in Developing World
A study by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health finds that families with fewer children are healthier families.
Buddelmeyer, Hielke et al – The Stress Cost of Children
Shows that births increase time stress, especially among mothers, and that the effects last at least several years. Births generally also raise financial stress slightly.
Juhn, Chinhui et al – The Quantity-Quality Trade-off and the Formation of Cognitive and Non-cognitive Skills
A study by the National Bureau of Economic Research finds that increases in family size decrease parental investment, decrease childhood cognitive abilities, and increase behavioral problems.
Yuthika U. Girme et al – Happily Single: The Link Between Relationship Status and Well-Being Depends on Avoidance and Approach Social Goals
People who fear relationship conflicts are just as happy when they are single as in a relationship.
Mekanikian, Rozita and Anny Kilbourne – The Blair Legacy: Child Policy + no Population Policy = 21st Century Baby Boom
Shows how the presence or absence of policies combined with short-term perspectives can singly and collectively affect national population dynamics.
Sedgh, Gilda et al – Intended and Unintended Pregnancies Worldwide in 2012 and Recent Trends
Approximately 40 per cent of pregnancies worldwide were unintended in 2012.
Sobotka, Tomas and Eva Boujouan – Two Is Best? The Persistence of a Two-Child Family Ideal in Europe
In the last several decades a two-child ideal has become nearly universal among women in Europe, with countries that used to display higher ideal family size converging over time toward a two-child norm.
Jones, Emma – Limiting Child Benefit and Child Tax Credit
Sets out the benefits of limiting family subsidies and explores how it might be done.
Ben-Galim, Dalia – No More Baby Steps: A Strategy for Revolutionising Childcare
Sets out plans for how the United Kingdom can move towards a universal, high-quality and affordable system of childcare and early-years provision.
Colleran, Heidi et al – Community-Level Education Accelerates the Cultural Evolution of Fertility Decline
Suggests that optimization of reproduction is partly driven by cultural dynamics beyond the individual.
Kolk, Martin et al – Correlations in Fertility Across Generations
Only through continuous cultural change introducing novel lifestyles will low fertility rates persist.
Potts, Malcolm – Getting Family Planning and Population Back on Track
Discusses ways of increasing support for family planning services.
Myrskylä, Mikko and Rachel Margolis – Happiness: Before and After the Kids 2014
Childbearing only brings temporary happiness.
Wellings, Kaye et al – The Prevalence of Unplanned Pregnancy and Associated Factors in Britain
The prevalence of unplanned pregnancy and associated factors in a general population sample in Britain.
Castle, Alan – ( Child Tax and Welfare Benefits Poster)
Explores the links between state subsidies of families and fertility rates.
Jones, Emma – Discussions on Family Size
Reviews public discussion in the United Kingdom of the preferable family size.
Whiting, Susanne – ( Socio-Demographic Comparison between Those UK Families with Up to Two Children and Those with Three or More Poster)
Examines the characteristics of larger families in the United Kingdom.
Eberstadt, Nicholas and Apoorva Shah – Fertility Decline in the Muslim World
Shows that fertility is declining rapidly in many Muslim countries.
Bhrolcháina, Máire Ní & Éva Beaujouana – Fertility Postponement is Largely Due to Rising Educational Enrolment
Suggests that fertility tempo change is rooted in macroeconomic and structural forces rather than in the cultural domain.
Campbell, Martha M. et al – The Impact of Freedom on Fertility Decline 2012 Education and wealth can make the adoption of family planning easier, but they are not prerequisites for fertility decline. By contrast, access to family planning itself can accelerate economic development and the spread of education.
Rindfuss, Robert R. et al – Child-Care Availability and Fertility in Norway 2011 Shows that increased availability of child care increases completed fertility.
Smail, J. Kenneth, Eric Rimmer and Andrew Ferguson – Three Short Pieces on Fertility
The papers address the effects of high fertility rates.
Lutz, W. and K.C. Samir – Dimensions of Global Population Projections: What Do We Know About Future Population Trends and Structures? 2010 Considers the likely trajectory of population growth until 2050, as well as its distribution by sex, age and level of education.
Cleland, J. et al – Sexual and Reproductive Health 3 — Family Planning: the Unfinished Agenda 2006 Examines the effect of the promotion of family planning in countries with high birth rates.
Penn, Roger and Paul Lambert – Attitudes Towards Ideal Family Size of Different Ethnic / Minority Groups in Great Britain, France and Germany
Explores actual and preferred family size by ethnic/ minority groups.
Lesthaeghe, R. – Europe’s Demographic Issues: Fertility, Household Formation and Replacement Migration 2000 United Nations expert group meeting on policy responses to population ageing and population decline. Gives a general assessment of modern trends in fertility and household formation in Europe.
Polit, Denise F. and Toni Falbo – Only Children and Personality Development: A Quantitative Review 1987 Examined the results of 141 studies and found that only children scored significantly better than other groups in achievement motivation and personal adjustment. Overall, the review indicated that only children were comparable in most respects to their siblinged counterparts.
Caldwell J.C. and P. Caldwell – The Cultural Context of High Fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa 1987 Concludes that cultural beliefs and practices — not the failure of family planning and development — are behind the high fertility rates in sub-Saharan Africa.
Guttmacher Institute – Negative Stereotypes About Only Children Unfounded; They Do Well on Any Measure 1981 Examines how children from small families — including only children — fare better on almost any measure than those from large families and notes that couples’ decisions about family size are the most important of the background influences on child quality that have been studied.
Polit, Denise F., Ronald L. Nuttall and Ena V. Nuttall – The Only Child Grows up: A Look at Some Characteristics of Adult Only Children 1980 Extends knowledge about only children by examining a group of adults in terms of a number of important life outcomes. Compared with other firstborns with siblings, and with individuals of higher birth orders, only children were found to have higher educational levels, higher occupational status, smaller families, and to be more secularly oriented.
Kidwell, Jeannie S. – Adolescents’ Perceptions of Parental Affect: An Investigation of Only Children vs. Firstborns and the Effect on Spacing 1978 A recent national survey and other data reveal the persistence of a widespread negative image of only children and their families among the American populace. Notes that there is little empirical evidence about one-child families.
World Bank – India’s Population Policy: History and Future 1977 Evidences the many positive effects of family planning upon the Indian people in the 20th century.